The phase in the business cycle that Russia is in is Prosperity. Prosperity is the high point of the business cycle. The Gross Domestic Product is 796 billion dollars. Russia is partners with Germany in exporting and importing. The number of imports is 33 billion and the number of exports are 66 billion. The National Budget is 56.6 billion dollars. They have 1 radio per 2.9 people. They also have 1 Telephone per 5.9 people. Russia’s education is free and compulsory through ages 7 to 17. The unemployment rate is 8 percent. The inflation rate is 85 percent and possibly more if monetary policy is relaxed. Russia was mostly an agricultural country until the late 19th century, when industrialization began, in European Russia. Economic development was then interrupted by World War 1 and the Civil War that followed. Modern development was initiated by Stalin, whose frantic industrialization drive in the 1930’s made the Soviet Union an industrial giant. Under Stalin and his successors, the less settled frontier regions of Central Asia and Siberia were developed. Several of the world’s largest dams were built on in the former Soviet Union, and the world’s first atomic station was opened in 1954. By the 1980’s about 40 nuclear reactors were operating in the Soviet Union. In the late 1970’s the economic backwardness of the Soviet Union had become so self evident that no amount of political propaganda could obscure it. Western developed countries began to enter the Information Age, introducing new communication technologies and electronic links among institutions and individuals. The Soviet Union still relied on the rigid planning and pervasive controls, leaving no room for initiative and inventiveness. When Mikhail Gorbachev became head of the party in 1985, the huge country began to move. Gorbachev surrounded himself with a number of reform-minded economists and soon formulated the main pillars of economic restructuring called perestroika. The major goals of perestrioka were to make Soviet enterprises more self-governing and to give them more freedom, while at the same time, more responsibility for their performance. In the planned economy before perestroika, all enterprises were totally dependent on central planners, who determined where to buy materials, what to produce, and where to sell it. This system encouraged inefficiency, because the companies did not have to compete with any other companies.
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